Chronology of Greek History After the Peloponnesian War

405 -- Annihilation of Athenian fleet at the battle of Aegospotami by Lysander; over 3,000 Athenians were executed. Athens was besieged by Sparta with the blockading of Piraeus. Dionysius I became tyrant of Syracuse.

404 -- (Spring) Surrender of Athens to Sparta, with the destruction of its fortifications, loss of all foreign territories, surrender of the navy, and acceptance of Spartan leadership. Pro-Spartan oligarchy of Thirty Tyrants imposed at Athens under Critias.

404/403 -- Democratic exiles under Thrasybulus seized Phyle.

403 -- Thrasybulus seized Piraeus. Fall of Thirty Tyrants and restoration of democracy at Athens.

402/400 -- Agis II invaded Elis.

401 -- Expedition (anabasis) of Cyrus the Younger to take the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II; battle of Cunaxa, with the defeat and death of Cyrus.

400-387 -- War of Sparta against Persia.

399 -- General amnesty at Athens allowed exiles to return. Agesilaus II became king of Sparta.

398-392 -- War between Carthage and Dionysius I of Syracuse.

396-395 -- Campaigns of Agesilaus against the Persians in Asia Minor.

395-386 -- Corinthian War: Corinth, Boeotia, Argos and Athens backed by Persia against Sparta.

395 -- Lysander was killed at the siege of Haliartus.

394 -- Sparta and allies won the battle of Nemea against Athens, Corinth, Boeotia, Argos and others. Athenians and Boeotians were defeated by Sparta under Agesilaus II at the battle of Coronea. The Persian fleet under the Athenian Conon defeated the Spartan navy at the battle of Cnidus.

393 -- Athens rebuilt its Long Walls, and Piraeus was refortified.

390 -- Gauls sacked Rome.

390/389 -- Athens made an alliance with Thasos, Samothrace and many cities of Asia Minor.

387 -- Spartans and Persians defeated the Athenian fleet in the Hellespont.

386 -- King's Peace (also known as Peace of Antalcidas or Common Peace) was signed at Sardis.

386-385 -- City of Mantinea was destroyed by Spartans.

385 -- Jason became tyrant of Pherae.

383-375? -- War between Dionysius I and Carthage.

382 -- Spartan troops seized the citadel at Thebes (Cadmea).

379 -- Spartans forced Olynthus to surrender and dissolved the Chalcidic Confederacy for infringing the King's Peace.

379-378 -- Thebans regained their city from Spartan control.

378 -- Foundation of Second Athenian League.

377/376 -- Mausolus became satrap of Caria (to 353/352).

376 -- Spartans were defeated at sea off Naxos by the Second Athenian League. (Wmter) Dionysius I was defeated by Carthage at the battle of Cronium.

375 -- Battle of Tegyra. Renewal of the King's Peace.

373 -- Plataea was attacked and destroyed by Thebes.

371 -- (Early) Peace of Callias (one of many examples of a treaty of Common Peace) was signed at Sparta by all Greek states except Thebes. duly/August) Spartans under Cleombrotus were defeated by Thebans under Epaminondas at the battle of Leuctra, ending Spartan leadership in Greece.

370/369 -- (Wmter) First Theban invasion of Peloponnese, including Laconia. Messenia was liberated and became an independent state Formation of Arcadian Confederacy.

369 -- Second invasion of the Peloponnese by Thebes under Epaminondas. Alexander became tyrant of Pherae.

368 -- Foundation of Megalopolis as the capital of the Arcadian ConfederacY

367 -- Death of Dionysius I. Dionysius II became tyrant of Syracuse.

366 -- Dion was expelled from Syracuse.

366 -- Satraps' Revolt from Persian domination (to 360). Thebes seized Oropus.

365 -- Common Peace (possibly). Athens captured Samos from the Persians.

364 -- Thebes destroyed Orchomenus. Battle of Cynoscephalae, in which Pelopidas died.

362 -- Thebes under Epaminondas de- feated a force of Spartans, Athenians and Mantineans at the battle of Mantinea. Epaminondas was killed, marking the end of Theban supremacy.

362/361 -- Treaty of common peace amongst Greek cities, except Sparta.

361 -- Expedition by Agesilaus against Persians. Callistratus was executed.

361/360 -- Archidamus III became king of Sparta.

360 -- Death of Agesilaus.

359 -- Philip II succeeded Perdiccas III as king of Macedonia.

358 -- Philip II defeated the Paeonians.

357 -- Philip II captured Amphipolis. Outbreak of war between Athens and Macedonia.

357-355 -- Social War between Athens and important allies who had revolted from the Second Athenian League.

356 -- Dion controlled Syracuse (to 354). Battle of Embata, which the Athenian navy lost to Chios. Birth of Alexander the Great. (Spring) Siege of Potidaea by Philip II.

356-346 -- (Summer) Phocis seized Delphi and provoked the Third Sacred War (Phocis against Thebes, Locris and Thessaly).

354 -- Philip II took Methone (and lost an eye). Thessalian League appealed to Philip II for help against the tyrants of Pherae. (Autumn) Phocis was defeated at the battle of Neon. Dion was murdered.

353 -- Philip II was defeated twice.

352 -- Victory by Philip II at the battle of Crocus Field. Philip II was prevented from marching south at Thermopylae by Phocian troops and allies.

351 -- Demosthenes' First Philippic oration advocated an anti-Macedonian policy.

351/350 -- Philip II campaigned against Illyria and Epirus.

349-348 -- Philip II campaigned in Chalcidice.

348 -- Philip II attacked and destroyed Olynthus, enslaving the inhabitants.

346 -- Philip II and Athens made peace (Peace of Philocrates). Philip II crushed the Phocians.

346/345 -- Aeschines was prosecuted by Demosthenes.

345 -- Philip II campaigned against Illyria.

344 -- Timoleon went to assist Syracuse against Dionysius II and the Carthaginians.

344 343 -- Timoleon liberated Syracuse from Dionysius II.

342 -- Philip II campaigned in Thrace and removed its king.

341/339 -- June) Timoleon defeated the Carthaginians at the battle of Crimisus River in SicilY

340 -- Siege of Perinthus by Philip II. Siege of Byzantium by Philip II (to

339). (Late) Athens declared war on Philip II.

339 -- Fourth Sacred War of Philip II.

338 -- (2 August) Philip II defeated Athens and Thebes at the battle of Chaeronea. First congress of Corinth. Archidamus III was killed at the battle of Manduria, Italy

337 -- (Spring) Second congress of Corinth agreed on a Common Peace. (Summer) Corinthian League of Greek states (Hellenic League) was established by Philip II and agreed on war against Persia to avenge the wrongs of Xerxes.

3 36 -- Assassination of Philip II. Proposal by Ctesiphon that Demosthenes should be crowned for his services. Hellenist,ic Period

336 -- Accession of Alexander III (the Great). Accession of Darius III of Persia.

335 -- Alexander destroyed Thebes, killing and enslaving its population.

334 -- Alexander crossed into Asia, defeating Darius III at the battle of Granicus River (near the Hellespont); he then conquered Asia Minor.

3 3 3 -- (November) Defeat of Darius III by Alexander at the battle of Issus. Antigonus I was appointed satrap of Persia.

3 32 -- Alexander besieged and took Tyre and Gaza. (December) Alexander entered Egypt.

3 31 -- (6 April) Foundation of Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander visited the oracle of Zeus Ammon at Siwa. (November) Alexander defeated Darius III at the battle of Gaugamela (or Arbela). Alexander took Mesopotamia and entered Babylon and Persepolis. Antipater defeated Agis III at the battle of Megalopolis.

331/330 -- Alexander I of Epirus was defeated at the battle of Pandosia.

330 -- Destruction of Persepolis by Alexander's forces. Darius III was murdered in Bactria. (October) Plot against Alexander the Great was suppressed. Ctesiphon was prosecuted by Aeschines.

330-328 -- Alexander conquered Bactria and Sogdiana.

328/327 -- Cleitus was murdered by Alexander.

327 -- Marriage of Alexander and Roxane. Conspiracy of the pages (a plot to murder Alexander). Alexander began the India Expedition.

326 -- Alexander crossed the Indus, won the battle of Hydaspes (Jhelum) River and conquered the Punjab. At the Hyphasis River, Alexander's army refused to proceed further. Alexander and his army sailed down the Indus to the Indian Ocean.

325 -- Alexander returned through Baluchistan, with his army suffering great loss of life in the waterless deserts.

324 -- Alexander returned to Susa. Exiles' Decree issued by Alexander to repatriate exiles to their cities. Macedonian army mutiny at Opis on Tigris River.

323 -- (lOJune) Death of Alexander the Great at Babylon, age 32. Demosthenes retired to Aegina. Perdiccas became regent of Alexander the Great's empire.

323-322 -- Athens and other Greek states revolted against Macedonia (Lamian or Hellenic War).

322 -- (August) Battle of Crannon (Macedonian victory over the allied Greek states). Athens was occupied by Macedonians, and an oligarchy was established. Death of Demosthenes.

320 -- Death of Perdiccas. Conference at Triparadeisus.

319-316 -- Polyperchon was driven from Macedonia and much of Greece by Cassander.

319-301 -- Antigonus I attempted to reunite and rule the entire empire of Alexander the Great.

319 -- Death of Antipater. Ptolemy I seized Palestine and Coele-Syria.

317 -- Philip III Arrhidaeus was murdered by Olympias.

317/316 -- Agathocles became tyrant of Syracuse.

315 -- (Spring) Olympias, mother of Alexander, was executed by Cassander. Seleucus I fled to Ptolemy I.

315-311 -- Coalition of satraps fought against Antigonus I.

312 -- (Late) Ptolemy I defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes at the battle of Gaza. Seleucus I recaptured Babylon.

311 -- Alexander IV and Roxane were executed. Peace treaty among the Successors recognized the division among Antigonus (Asia), Cassander (Macedonia/ Greece), Lysimachus (Thrace), and Ptolemy (Egypt), although omitting the eastern satrapies of Seleucus I.

310-306 -- War between Agathocles and Carthage: invasion of Africa.

309/308 -- Areus I became king of Sparta.

307 -- Demetrius I Poliorcetes freed Athens from Cassander.

307-304 -- Four Years' War (Athens against Cassander).

306 -- Naval victory by Demetrius I Poliorcetes over Ptolemy I at Salamis. Peace between Agathocles and the Carthaginians.

306-304 -- Antigonus, Ptolemy and Seleucus I proclaimed themselves kings.

305-304 -- Siege of Rhodes by Demetrius I Poliorcetes, "The Besieger."

303 -- Treaty concluded between Seleucus I and the Indian king Sandracottus.

301 -- Battle of Ipsus: Antigonus I was killed and the power of Demetrius Poliorcetes was destroyed.

297 -- Death of Cassander, ruler of Macedonia. Pyrrhus became king of Epirus (to


295 -- (Spring) Athens was starved into surrender by Demetrius I Poliorcetes.

294 -- (Autumn) Demetrius Poliorcetes became king of Macedonia.

288 -- Lysimachus and Pyrrhus gained Macedonia from Demetrius I Poliorcetes.

285 -- Pyrrhus was pushed back to Epirus by Lysimachus. Demetrius Poliorcetes surrendered to Seleucus I and died in 283.

283/282 -- Ptolemy I Soter died; Ptolemy II Philadelphus succeeded (to 246).

281 -- Battle of Corupedium: Lysimachus of Thrace was defeated and killed by Seleucus I. Seleucus I was assassinated and succeeded by his son Antiochus I. Foundation of the Achaean Confederacy.

280-275 -- Campaigns of Pyrrhus of Epirus against Rome in south Italy and Sicily

280 -- Pyrrhus won the batde of Heraclea against Rome.

279 -- Pyrrhus won the battle of Asculum against Rome. Gauls invaded Macedonia and Greece as far as Delphi.

277 -- Antigonus II Gonatas defeated the Gauls near Lysimachia.

276 -- Antigonus II Gonatas became king of Macedonia, founding the Antigonid dynasty.

276/275 -- Ptolemy II married his sister Arsinoe II.

275 -- Pyrrhus was beaten by the Romans at the battle of Beneventum.

274/273-271 -- First Syrian War between Ptolemy II and Antiochus I Soter.

272 -- Surrender of Tarentum to Rome. Death of Pyrrhus of Epirus.

270 -- Hieron II became king at Syracuse (to 215)

268-263/262 -- Chremonidean War: Ptolemy II unsuccessfully supported Athens and Sparta against Antigonus II of Macedonia.

265 -- Mamertines were defeated by Hieron II at the battle of Longanus River.

264 -- Roman army entered Sicily to help the Mamertines against Carthage. Romans seized Messana. Beginning of the First Punic War.

263 -- Eumenes I succeeded Philetaerus as ruler of Pergamum. Hieron II of Syracuse became an ally of Rome.

262 -- Antiochus I was defeated near Sardis. Antigonus II Gonatas took Athens.

261 -- Antiochus II succeeded Antiochus I as Seleucid king.

260-253 -- Second Syrian War between Ptolemy II and Antiochus II.

251 -- Aratus recovered Sicyon, uniting it with the Achaean Confederacy against Macedonia.

249 -- Revolt of Alexander of Corinth against Antigonus II Gonatas on the death of Craterus the Younger.

246 -- Ptolemy III succeeded Ptolemy II as king of Egypt. Seleucus II succeeded Antiochus II as Seleucid king.

246-241 -- Third Syrian (Laodicean) War, between Ptolemy III and Seleucus II.

244-241 -- Agis IV became king at Sparta and attempted reforms.

243 -- Aratus of Sicyon and the Achaeans captured Corinth from the Macedonians. Lydiadas became tyrant of Megalopolis.

242 -- Leonidas II was deposed as king by Agis IV

241 -- Attalus I became ruler of Pergamum. Agis [V was executed.

240 -- Former Seleucid province of Bactria became independent.

239 -- Demetrius II succeeded Antigonus II Gonatas as king of Macedonia.

239-238 -- Demetrian War between Macedonia and the Achaean and Aetolian Confederacies.

239-236 -- War of the Brothers (Seleucus II against Antiochus Hierax).

238 -- Emergence of Parthia.

235 -- Cleomenes III became king of Sparta (to 222). Megalopolis joined the Achaean Confederacy.

229 -- Antigonus III Doson succeeded Demetrius II.

228 -- Antigonus III Doson defeated the Aetolians and Thessalians.

228/227 -- Major earthquake at Rhodes, which destroyed the Colossus.

227 -- Spartan victory at the battles of Mount Lycaeus and Ladocea.

227/226 -- Cleomenes III reformed the Spartan constitution.

226 -- Death of Antiochus Hierax. Seleucus III succeeded Seleucus II.

225-224 -- Antigonus III Doson occupied Acrocorinth.

224 -- Antigonus III Doson founded a Hellenic League of allies.

223 -- Antiochus III succeeded Seleucus III as Seleucid king. Cleomenes II sacked Megalopolis.

222 -- July) Battle of Sellasia near Sparta: defeat of the Spartans under Cleomenes III by the Achaeans and Antigonus III.

221 -- Philip V succeeded Antigonus III Doson. Ptolemy IV succeeded Ptolemy III as king of Egypt. Antiochus III invaded Palestine.

220-217 -- Social War: Philip V and his allies against Aetolia.

220 -- Revolt of Achaeus.

220/219 -- Prusias I campaigned against Byzantium.

219-217 -- Fourth Syrian War between Ptolemy IV and Antiochus III.

218 -- Prusias I defeated the Galatians.

217 -- Battle of Naupactus. Peace of Naupactus. Ptolemy IV defeated Antiochus III at the battle of Raphia.

215 -- Philip V of Macedonia formed an alliance with Hannibal of Carthage.

215-205 -- First Macedonian War between Rome and Philip V.

214 -- Philip V lost his navy offIllyria.

213 -- Death of Aratus of Sicyon. Romans besieged Syracuse.

212-205 -- Antiochus III campaigned in the east (his anabasis) as far as India, emulating Alexander the Great.

211 -- Roman alliance with the Aetolian Confederacy against Philip V. Romans captured Syracuse, and Sicily became a Roman province.

209 -- Attalus I of Pergamum allied with Rome against Philip V.

207-187/1 86 -- Revolt of Upper Egypt.

205 -- (Summer) Peace of Phoenice between Rome and Philip V, which ended First Macedonian War.

204 -- Ptolemy V succeeded Ptolemy IV in Egypt.

202 -- Philip V and Antiochus III made an alliance against Egypt.

202-195 -- Fifth Syrian War, between Antiochus III and Ptolemy V.

201 -- Philip V was defeated in a naval battle off Chios.

200 -- Second Macedonian War between Rome and Philip V (to 197). Ptolemy V was defeated at the battle of Panion.

197 -- Defeat of Philip V by the Romans at the battle of Cynoscephalae. Eumenes II succeeded Attalus I.

196 -- (Summer) Roman general Flamininus proclaimed the liberation of the Greeks at the Isthmian Games.

194 -- Roman forces left Greece.

192 -- Antiochus III invaded Greece.

192-188 -- Syrian War between Antiochus III and Rome.

189 -- Battle of Magnesia ad Sipylum (Roman victory).

188 -- Peace of Apamea.

187 -- Death of Antiochus III.

183 -- Hannibal committed suicide.

180 -- Ptolemy VI succeeded T,tolemy V.

179 -- Philip V died and was succeeded by Perseus. Perseus renewed an alliance with Rome.

175 -- Antiochus IV Epiphanes succeeded Seleucus IV as king.

171-168 -- Third Macedonian War against the Romans.

170-168 -- Sixth Syrian War, between Egypt and Antiochus IV.

170 -- Ptolemy VIII became king of Egypt.

169 -- Antiochus IV raided the temple of Jerusalem.

168 -- Perseus was defeated by Rome at the battle of Pydna, ending the kingdom of Macedonia.

167 -- Rome divided Macedonia into four republics. Rome declared Delos a free port. Antiochus IV raided the temple of Jerusalem for a second time. Revolt of Jews led byJudas Maccabaeus began.

163 -- Antiochus V succeeded Antiochus IV.

162 -- Demetrius I became Seleucid king.

161/160 -- Judas Maccabaeus was killed in battle.

160 -- Orophernes seized the throne of Cappadocia.

159 -- Attalus II succeeded Eumenes II.

157 -- Ariarathes V was restored to the Seleucid throne.

156-154 -- War between Prusias II and Attalus II.

155 -- Ptolemy VIII threatened to bequeath Cyrene to Rome.

150 -- Polybius and other Achaean hostages held since the battle of Pydna were freed. Demetrius I killed in battle by Alexander Balas.

148 -- Macedonia became a Roman province.

146 -- Achaean War: Corinth was destroyed by Rome. Achaean Confederacy was dissolved.